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THE THREE SOUNDS OF THE -ED SUFFIX

Although the spelling doesn’t show it, there are three different sounds of the -ED past tense suffix. Why? Because the -ED suffix assimilates to the sound next to it. Assimilation means one sound becames similar to another sound. There are two kinds of sounds: the kind of sound that produces vibration in your vocal cords and the kind of sound that doesn’t. To feel the vibration, you can touch your throat or cover your ears while you make sounds.


-ED sounds like [t] after [p, (c)k, f, s, sh, (t)ch] stopped, kicked, laughed, missed, washed, watched, liked


-ED sounds like [d] after [b, g, v, z, dge, th, m, n, l, r, and vowels] stabbed, jogged, waved, buzzed, dodged, loved, bathed, cried, played


-ED sounds like [id] after [t and d]chatted, shouted, added, graded, hated


Spelling Rules:


1) Double the consonant after short vowels [the sounds in: pit, pet, pat, put, pot, putt]. For example: tap + -ed = tapped (not taped).

2) Words that end in -e just take one -e when they add the -ed suffix. For example: move + ed = moved (not moveed).

3) If -y is the only vowel, it becomes -i before -ed. For example: cry + -ed = cried (not cryed).


PART 1: PUT THESE WORDS INTO THREE COLUMNS: T, D, or ID.

grab, jump, need, cash, bake, move, guide, wait, add, view, walk, fade, slap, miss, inflate, deflate, complain, cough, ask, trip, shout, want, kiss, laugh, cheer, yell, holler, scream, chat, braid, cry, rob, pass, grumble, stop, dodge, kick, stumble, wobble, hop, smack, slip, spill, wave, buzz, jog, instigate, bait, wash, lie, bill, play, plod, invade


PART 2: FIND THE PAST TENSE VERB. IS THE -ED SUFFIX [t, d, or id]?

1. The soldiers marched away. 6. The child coughed all night. 11. The movie ended early.
2. I inflated the balloon. 7. Our grandma waved at us. 12. The crowd clapped for me.
3. The teacher graded the test. 8. Miss Jones missed the bus. 13. We yelled at the yellow dog.
4. The airplane landed safely. 9. My neighbor jumped my car. 14. Rob robbed the bank.
5. The clown popped the balloon. 10. Gil killed the bug. 15. Sue sued her friend Stu.